On Knowing Everything

On Knowing Everything

      Aristotle has been depicted as the last individual to know everything there was to be known. To put down this accomplishment by assuming that in his day there wasn't generally that much to know is to disparage the expansiveness of Aristotle's learning. His works grasped material science, mysticism, verse, theater, music, rationale, talk, legislative issues, government, morals, science and zoology.

These days, the general thought of knowing everything appears outside our ability to understand. One need just indicate Wikipedia to exhibit how such comprehensive learning far surpasses the limit of any one person. We may know a ton about our picked field, however we ought to have no fantasies: our numbness immensely surpasses our insight.

In any case, isn't there some approach to get a feeling of the "10,000 foot view"? All things considered, everybody now conveys a mental picture of the earth as observed from space, a point of view inaccessible to-even incomprehensible for-individuals a hundred years prior. Unquestionably there must be some approach to accomplish a similar picture of western culture.

Joyfully, we have an apparatus not accessible to Aristotle. Measurements discloses to us that a precisely chose test enables us to make legitimate speculations about a populace. Regardless of the possibility that we can't know all the individual trees, we can get a truly reasonable thought of the timberland by analyzing specific examples.

So how would we pick the examples for an extensive scale point of view of western culture? The network the matrix design well-known from spreadsheets-offers an effective apparatus. Envision a framework with time on one pivot and six classifications of culture-Art, Literature, Music, Philosophy and Theology, Science and Mathematics, History and Social Sciences-on the other.

The century offers a helpful, if self-assertive, unit of estimation for time. However, when we begin attempting to fill in the matrix, it rapidly winds up plainly evident that the century ends up plainly unreasonable before around 1000 A.D. For comfort, we might need to consider Ancient Greece as a solitary unit, Ancient Rome as another unit, and the Middle Ages (say, the fifth through tenth hundreds of years) as a third unit, before continuing with one-hundred-year interims.

Having built up a vacant lattice, the following stage is to fill the greatest number of the containers as we can with isolated specialists, writers, and writers, comparing to the individual trees in our timberland of western culture. These decisions can turn out to be profoundly individual, yet we require not guarantee that our decision is the most ideal contender for that case, just that it be a solid candidate.

I offer my own network not to demand my decisions but rather essentially to represent the procedure. (Tragically, this site can't duplicate a grid, yet by survey the substance of each column you can get a thought of what it may resemble.)

Antiquated Greece: Parthenon; Homer; Sophocles; Plato; Aristotle; Pythagoras; Euclid; Herodotus

Antiquated Rome: Colosseum; Virgil; Paul of Tarsus; Ptolemy; Caesar

fifth tenth hundreds of years: Book of Kells; Beowulf; Plainsong; St. Augustine; Gregory of Tours

eleventh century: Bayeux Tapestry; Song of Roland; Rise of polyphony; St. Anselm

twelfth century: St. Sernin de Toulouse; Chrétien de Troyes; Leonin; Peter Abelard

thirteenth century: Notre-Dame de Paris; Gottfried von Strassburg; Perotin; Thomas Aquinas; Fibonacci

fourteenth century: Giotto; Chaucer; Machaut; William of Ockham

fifteenth century: Robert Campin; Villon; Ockeghem; Leonardo da Vinci

sixteenth century: Michelangelo; Shakespeare; Lassus; Erasmus; Luther; Copernicus; Machiavelli; Castiglione

seventeenth century: Velásquez; Molière; Monteverdi; Descartes; Newton; Hobbes; Locke

eighteenth century: Jefferson; Fielding; Bach; Kant; Euler; Smith

nineteenth century: Turner; Austen; Beethoven; Kierkegaard; Darwin; Gauss; Marx

twentieth century: Picasso; Joyce; Bartók; Sartre; Einstein; Heisenberg; Freud

Having recorded the craftsmen, writers and writers, we should then pick specific works for every one. Once more, I will represent with my own particular decisions; other individuals would plainly deliver an alternate rundown.

Old Greece: Parthenon; Homer, The Odyssey; Sophocles, Oedipus Rex; Plato, The Republic; Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics; Pythagoras; Euclid, Elements; Herodotus, Histories

Old Rome: Colosseum; Virgil, The Aeneid; Paul of Tarsus, Epistle to the Romans; Ptolemy, Almagest; Caesar, Commentaries on The Gallic Wars

fifth tenth hundreds of years: Book of Kells; Beowulf; Plainsong, Kyrie orbis consider; St. Augustine, The City of God; Gregory of Tours, Ten Books of History

eleventh century: Bayeux Tapestry; Song of Roland; Rise of Polyphony, Alleluia Justus ut palma; St. Anselm, Proslogion

twelfth century: St. Sernin de Toulouse; Chrétien de Troyes, Lancelot, The Knight of the Cart; Leonin, Viderunt omnes; Peter Abelard, Sic et non

thirteenth century: Notre-Dame de Paris; Gottfried von Strassburg, Tristan; Perotin, Sederunt principes; Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica; Fibonacci, Liber abaci

fourteenth century: Giotto, Entrance of Christ into Jerusalem; Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales; Machaut, Ma blade est mon beginning; William of Ockham, Sum of Logic

fifteenth century: Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece; Villon, Ballade des women du temps jadis; Ockeghem, Missa prolationum; Leonardo da Vinci, Notebooks

sixteenth century: Michelangelo, The Creation of Adam; Shakespeare, Hamlet; Lassus, De Profundis; Erasmus, In Praise of Folly; Luther, 95 Theses; Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; Machiavelli, The Prince; Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier

seventeenth century: Velásquez, Las Meninas; Molière, Le Misanthrope; Monteverdi, Orfeo; Descartes, Discourse on the Method; Newton, Principia Mathematica; Hobbes, Leviathan; Locke, second Treatise on Government

eighteenth century: Jefferson, Monticello; Fielding, Tom Jones; Bach, B Minor Mass; Kant, Groundwork for a Metaphysics of Morals; Euler, The Seven Bridges of Königsberg; Smith, The Wealth of Nations

nineteenth century: Turner, The Slave Ship; Austen, Pride and Prejudice; Beethoven, Symphony No. 9; Kierkegaard, Either/Or; Darwin, On the Origin of Species; Gauss, Theory of the movement of the sublime bodies; Marx, The Communist Manifesto

twentieth century: Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon; Joyce, Ulysses; Bartók, Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta; Sartre, Being and Nothingness; Einstein, General Theory of Relativity; Heisenberg, Uncertainty Principle, Quantum Mechanics; Freud, Interpretation of Dreams

One could without much of a stretch compose a book about each work recorded in the network and, joyfully, many individuals have effectively done that. Our employment, recall, is not to end up noticeably the world master on each tree in our example yet essentially to end up noticeably all around ok familiar with it that we can make important examinations with different trees.

Having filled the cases in our network, we are currently in a position to make important speculations, grounded in particular cases. Moving over the lattice, in a latitudinal cut, we can search for general standards hidden the majority of the works in a specific century. Moving down the framework, in a longitudinal cut, we can remark on the historical backdrop of a specific train, continually utilizing specific works in support of our perceptions. We will most likely be unable to know everything, except through an investigation of agent trees, we can make certain declarations about the way of the backwoods.

I have endeavored this undertaking in the book The Matrix of Western Culture: Perspectives on History, the Arts and Ideas, as a representation of how one may complete the procedure, surely not as a claim to be the one conclusive variant. I would welcome the chance to perceive how other individuals may fill in the framework and additionally how they may present their decisions of individual works.

Arthur Wenk has written in an assortment of classifications, from scholarly monographs to murder puzzles. The entire rundown of his accessible books can be seen at amazon.com/writer/arthurwenk. Since his retirement in 2014, Dr. Wenk lives in North Fort Myers, Florida and Lagoon City, Ontario.
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